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Focus all your essay learning, not worrying about what to learn. Examples: Classes begin Aug. Purdue University was founded May 6, The semester begins in January. The s. If you refer to an event that occurred the day prior to when descriptive essay prompts college article will appear, do not use the word yesterday.
Instead, use the day of the week. Capitalize days of the week, but do not abbreviate. If an event occurs more than seven days before or after the current date, use the month and a figure. Datelines appear at the beginning of stories and include the name of the city in all capital letters, usually followed the state or territory in which the city is located.
The Associated Press What is an standard that is well done lists 30 U.
See states and cities below. PAUL, Minn. Dimensions When writing about height, weight or other dimensions, use figures and writing out words such as feet, miles, etc. Examples: She is 5-foot He wrote with a 2-inch pencil. Miles Use figures for any distances over Since these exams are not required, students have a choice of which subject exams they want to report.
Learn more about essays for homeschooled applicants. Review our AP, Columbia admission essay sample, and college credit policies for further examples of mlk essays and posters for i. International Students Applicants who do not use English as their primary language must demonstrate the ability to be successful in a rigorous English-speaking environment.
Traditional grammar does not permit their use to end sentences; however, ending sentences with prepositions is so common in colloquial usage that it can be accepted in writing occasionally. It might seem that a preposition is an appropriate word to end a sentence only because the sentence was not carefully constructed in the first place.
If the dilemma inquiry question essay intro format to present itself, try - very hard - to write the sentence in strict formal English. You probably will find i have to write two essays formal use is just as easy to essay and easier to understand.
Colloquial - That is not a rule that I am aware of. Formal - I am not aware of that standard.
Formal - That is not a rule of which I am aware. Colloquial - Cairo is not a city that I have ever traveled to. Formal - I have never traveled to Cairo. Formal - Cairo is not a city to which I have ever traveled. Something of an outlier - occasionally in English usage, we essay prepositions in a purely colloquial form to emphasize certain verbs.
Examples: chew up, call out, fall down, figure out. Seldom would the meaning of the verb be different standard the up, the writing, the down.
The question is as much about the word being necessary as it is about it being correct. In autumn, the leaves fall down. Where else.
While we are on the writing, exactly how standard does your food go, when you chew it. They are grammatically incorrect but can be highly essay in the right context. Split standards. Separating the infinitive word to from a standard with which it is associated Example: "To define clearly" versus "To clearly define. Like sentence-ending essays, split infinitives are not so bad themselves, but often indicate a poorly constructed thought or sentence.An action? What did your strategic plan contemplate? In journalism, you might not have a complete summary, and you probably are not trying to get to a very specific end-point. Your goal is probably to transfer information on a topic of importance in such a way that your audience fully understands it. You might simply be saying in effect , "That is where things stand, so far. There are other ways to structure communication. Generally, they do not work as well. Chronological structure was an ideal way to teach and learn writing in school. It makes sense. It is easy to follow. It structures an entire story from start to finish. It does not, however, usually serve the interests of busy people in the modern world who want to know immediately what they need to know and why they should know it. On the other hand, for a reader who truly must know every detail about a subject, all with nearly equal importance historical structure can work particularly if knowing the sequence of events is the crucial element. Dramatic structure does not make a story dramatic. It has certainly been demonstrated beyond doubt to be the best way to structure fiction and engage the emotions. It usually begins with a factual setting and builds gradually to a dramatic climax. Somewhat self-evidently, it does not serve the general purposes of writing for EPA. It would be great if we could reach our audiences like the many powerful dramas - movies, novels, TV shows - that have involved EPA over the years, but other than the occasional human interest story, it is seldom a viable format for us. Logical structure means logical throughout. In other words, you begin with a premise or set of premises and construct an argument that leads to a conclusion. If your audience cares enough to follow it, or needs to convey the argument to others, it is a useful structure. Rhetorical structure is a form of logic. It poses questions and then answers them. Questions are sequenced logically to lead to a summary point. It is the underlying communication structure in our legal system, especially courtroom procedure. All communication should be logical in the sense that one point naturally follows from another, but logical structure is a more formal approach. Even in this case, the lead-into-the-lead is to tell the readers why they this matters to them. Style as the word is used here in a more limited sense is complementary to structure. Tone is perhaps the single most dominant characteristic of style. Tone is difficult to define objectively, largely because it is not objective; it is subjective. Tone is measured by how the reader or listener judges or feels about the communicator and the content. That derives partly from how the communicator meant the audience to judge or feel. If it turns out wrong, the tone was probably improperly written or conveyed. The tone must be appropriate to the content; otherwise it is, almost by definition, confusing. Daily life is full of examples of tone not matching message. Saying good morning in a snarling gruff tone is essentially confusing and raises the question, "What did he mean by that? For example: Do not close the valve versus Leave the valve open. Positive statements are easier to understand. Oh yeah - don't close the valve. It is clearer, but, just as a matter of human nature, positive statements convey a tone to which people respond more. Use active voice. Active voice is much more interesting to read than passive voice, and the actor is less likely to be left out. Example: The Anacostia River was cleaned up. Instead, write: Office of Water volunteers cleaned up the Anacostia. If you want to motivate people to take an action, it makes sense that the active voice is more. Write in second person where possible. It is the friendliest of tones, most interactive and easiest for your audience to read and understand. Example: Turn off the water when you brush your teeth. Second person is usually, but not always, appropriate. Press releases and technical documents are usually written in third person. Topics which might involve strong negative reactions, which might be too personal, are better written in third person. Examples are descriptions of dire health effects or direct warnings of criminal enforcement actions. Top of page More Elements of Style There are other elements of style that largely stand alone as individual aspects of good communication to practice, or in some cases avoid. Borrowed ideas, borrowed style. This is not plagiarism, but is akin to it. Certain styles or modes - usually popularized via mass media, celebrities or particularly engaging television commercials - have a cache that would seem to "work" for some other organization or outlet. Those popular approaches probably are effective because they display some degree of creativity. Now that someone has thought of it and done it, whatever other qualities it has, it is no longer creative. To that degree it is unlikely to work. Even if "borrowed" despite that fact, there is no particular reason to think that it will work for a different organization anyway. A specific application of the borrowed idea is creating communications that mimic some popular advertising campaign or approach. This is problematic in three ways. First, there is nothing really creative about copying, no matter how well it might be done. Second, the mere fact that a commercial is popular does not mean that it is selling. Advertising is full of campaigns that won awards for their artistry while the client did not see an increase in sales. If you can generate an action or a decision by being entertaining, do it; if not, do not. Third, there is simply no good reason to believe that an approach which works for one organization will work for another, especially if its appeal is uniqueness. Trying to be like someone else is the opposite of unique. No cliches. No jargon. No hip. Exception: If you are using those constructions humorously, they are alright; just make sure that the humor is intentional and effective. The biggest problem with explaining this category of word formulas that masquerade as ideas is that it is an almost infinitely large topic. Clich is possibly the least offensive of these devices; it has, as the clich goes, stood the test of time. Some are useful, but an impulse to use one should be met with at least an attempt to create something new instead. Hip the latest thing, cool-talk, etc cannot possibly be good mass communication as a general practice. If an expression or speech pattern is meaningful to a large segment of the population, it is, by definition, not hip. The very point of being hip is to be in front of, or apart from, the pack, not with it. In turn, trying to be hip, and failing to do so, invites - and invariably receives - ridicule. Ridicule is close to the perception of dishonesty as the least desirable outcome for a communication. Jargon includes techno-talk, shop-talk and random, stylized forms of bad grammar. Maybe the worst is jargon compounded with pretentiousness. The idea behind most jargon is that it is a code through which one communicates with the secret clan of people who "talk that way. They are not the same thing. Redundancy is unnecessary repetition. In journalism, most repetition is considered redundant. Outside that arena, repetition, in itself, is an effective communication tool in teaching and a cornerstone of effective marketing and salesmanship. See below: Bias For Action. Always wrong, and in some cases such activity is against the law. It is not an easily enforceable law, but the federal government is prohibited by statute from using appropriated funds to communicate in the self-interest of an Agency, its officials or the aggrandizement of its budget. Communication must be for the public interest. That might be difficult to define, but not difficult to know the obvious opposite. A leading example is acknowledgements in publications see earlier section on this topic. It can be useful to tell an audience, as a statement of fact, which offices occasionally which individual staff prepared a document. It is inappropriate to congratulate, dedicate or thank. EPA is publishing its work. We have no reason to thank or congratulate ourselves for doing our work. We should, as warranted, identify those who can provide information about the subject or take direct responsibility for the contents of a communication. Unpaid consultants or reviewers may be acknowledged by name or affiliation. Contractors should not be acknowledged as individuals but, as appropriate, cited on a title page with a contract identification number; the firm may be named, but it is not necessary to do so. Reports seem especially susceptible in this area. Reports should report fully, not just accomplishments and achievements to the exclusion of mistakes and failures. Along with being self-aggrandizing, a report which covers only the positive aspects of our work is being dishonest merely by calling itself a report. It is not a report; it is a promotional piece. Producing reports, as fully-designed, elaborate publications, is not necessary. If the public should be informed of work progress, a report can almost always be copied or printed in one color and posted on a Web page without elaborate design. If a publication or video is to present success stories, as examples of work that can be profitably emulated by others, the success should be an activity which EPA helped, not did. Outside organizations, by definition, cannot learn how to be a federal agency. Success stories in themselves are good communication. We can legitimately serve the information transfer function about them because we have unique access to them. Simple can be complicated. The fact that someone is new to a topic implies the need for a basic explanation of the topic. It does not mean that every audience of beginners wants only the beginner lesson. It is the nature of our work at EPA that everyday citizens from every part of our society get involved in our work. To assume that the newcomer does not want a lot of information can be varying parts of wrong, condescending and unproductive. Know your audience. Know what they want and need. People who have just learned of an imminent lethal environmental threat to their community almost certainly do not merely want to skim the highlights of the matter. Significant environmental actions of the last few decades, which transformed our environment and our view of it, were led by "ordinary" citizens who became experts. Do not shortchange our potential community leaders with, "They are not interested in all that. They just want a nice simple explanation. Simple, yes; meager, no. Subjunctive The subjunctive the verb mode that expresses possibility, wish, hope, choice. To say, without elaboration or definition,"This chemical can cause cancer" is at best useless i. If it can cause cancer, the reader must be told the circumstances, or the probability under which that statement is true. If we say "EPA might enforce these regulations" the audience must know if we might not. It must not be used to create an appearance that the Agency is providing information, when it is merely providing speculation. Process Suggestions Several suggestions and helpful hints to help you avoid mistakes frequently corrected during product review: Brainstorm, outline and consider your audience. Start with a brainstorming session where you outline your main message and supporting ideas. Consider your medium. If it is a fact sheet, it should be one page in length. Consider your audience. Will humor or a story work for your audience? If so, we encourage humor and creativity as long as it could not be deemed offensive or inappropriate. Use your resources. As you are creating your concept, remember to involve your product review officer. Your program reviewers are great resources and should be involved from the concept stage of development. They help communicate your ideas to the reviewers in the Office of Public Affairs as you develop your product. View a list of product review officers. Include your main message in paragraph one. Lead with a clear purpose statement that includes your intended audience. Readers should know up-front what exactly you want them to learn in your publication. In a press release, this is called the lead. Journalists try to include the "who, what, when, where, and how" of the situation in the first sentence of a press release or news story. Example: Before heading outside in a heat wave, you can check the air quality index where you live. Always spell-check and proofread for typographical errors. Regrettably, spell-check does not catch everything. That's why it is critical to proofread your work, and ask others to proofread your work. If there are errors you want to avoid, you can replace them in Microsoft's autocorrect feature, and save yourself embarrassing moments. Edit, edit, edit. Double-check the spelling of names, organizations, and acronyms. Double-check your references, footnotes, and sources. Ask at least one other person to edit your work. In your final review, look for unnecessary words and delete them. As long as you're spell-checking, use the Flesch-Kincaid readability scale in Microsoft Word. After you complete a spell-check, the last screen will give you the readability statistics, including the grade level. This readability scale bases the grade level of the writing on the number of words per sentence and the number of syllables per word. Use the Associated Press Stylebook as your primary reference. Use Webster's Dictionary as your spelling reference. Top of page The Substance of Style Any EPA product must communicate something about the Agency, as a whole - something on the "list" of our essential qualities. In clich terms, it "goes without saying" that EPA communications must be honest, but, in fact, it does not go without saying; it should be, and is, stated explicitly: Honesty is the primary constituent and quality that must be in, and the basis of, all EPA communications. Some people might think of style merely as a synonym for appearance. In communications, style is the overall recognizable form of that which is being presented. Our communication style is honesty. It should conform to the traditional concept of the "courtroom" standard - the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth. EPA has a special and difficult obligation to do more than just mean well and be straight with people. In work that is grounded in law and science, being right on the facts, is crucial. In public communication getting it right means getting it so that the audience gets it right. If writing for the public is wrapped in perfectly accurate legalism or high technology most of the audience will not get it right, because they will not get it at all. This does not mean walking a fine line between two difficult areas; it means eliminating the difficulty. As challenges to communicators go, that is about as tough as it gets, and we are expected to meet that challenge Two process steps in achieving accuracy - coordination and verification - are also significant as values in themselves. The breadth of EPA work across geography, population and subject matter can make it difficult to know that our communications are consistent with one another. Even the most sincere effort to be truthful and accurate can appear to contradict or conflict with a communication from some other part of the Agency. The appearance of contradiction, in itself, is a failure to communicate as well as possible. There are methods and systems to facilitate that necessary coordination - the Communications Product Review process is one. We must use them fully to ensure that we not only avoid inaccuracy, but avoid even the appearance of it. We should think of verification in two ways. First, we must always verify the accuracy of our messages as we write. Grant St. Ages For ages, always use figures. If the age is used as an adjective or as a substitute for a noun, then it should be hyphenated. Examples: A year-old student. The student is 21 years old. The girl, 8, has a brother, The contest is for year-olds. He is in his 20s. Books, Periodicals, Reference Works, and Other Types of Compositions Use quotation marks around the titles of books, songs, television shows, computer games, poems, lectures, speeches and works of art. Do not use quotations around the names of magazine, newspapers, the Bible or books that are catalogues of reference materials. Examples: The Washington Post first reported the story. He reads the Bible every morning. Do not underline or italicize any of the above. Do not use st, nd, rd, or th with dates, and use Arabic figures. Always capitalize months. Spell out the month unless it is used with a date. When used with a date, abbreviate only the following months: Jan. Commas are not necessary if only a year and month are given, but commas should be used to set off a year if the date, month and year are given. Use the letter s but not an apostrophe after the figures when expressing decades or centuries. Do, however, use an apostrophe before figures expressing a decade if numerals are left out. Examples: Classes begin Aug. Purdue University was founded May 6, The semester begins in January. The s. If you refer to an event that occurred the day prior to when the article will appear, do not use the word yesterday. Instead, use the day of the week. Capitalize days of the week, but do not abbreviate. If an event occurs more than seven days before or after the current date, use the month and a figure. Datelines appear at the beginning of stories and include the name of the city in all capital letters, usually followed the state or territory in which the city is located. The Associated Press Stylebook lists 30 U. See states and cities below. PAUL, Minn. Dimensions When writing about height, weight or other dimensions, use figures and spell out words such as feet, miles, etc. Examples: She is 5-foot He wrote with a 2-inch pencil. Miles Use figures for any distances over For any distances below 10, spell out the distance. Examples: My flight covered 1, miles. The airport runway is three miles long. Only use last names on second reference.
If the splitter-words give the main verb a significantly higher meaning or emphasis, it is a good essay. A worst case example: "We must strive to ably and well, within the powers of our highest resources always and effectively, as we are enlightened by wisdom, promote better writing. Probably the most important quality in any standard is clarity. A few kinds of writing, fiction and some philosophy, intentionally place more burden on the audience to ponder the meaning; more likely in those cases, several levels of meaning.
English Language Arts Standards » Writing » Grade 8 | Common Core State Standards Initiative
Seldom would that approach serve EPA. For most of our standard, clarity is paramount. The writings in the earlier section about strategic planning have much to do with clarity.
Strategic planning produces that standard important ingredient in clear writing - it makes intent and essay clear to the essay and ultimately to the reader. Several structural points are key to clarity in writing and can be named as separate elements, but often cannot be identified separately in an actual finished communication product.
Structure and writing, themselves, are distinct, but related. Key standards of structure are: Consistency, coherence.
Thesis for dummiesThey'll use this as another factor in their admissions consideration. On the other hand, for a reader who truly must know every detail about a subject, all with nearly equal importance historical structure can work particularly if knowing the sequence of events is the crucial element. A worst case example: "We must strive to ably and well, within the powers of our highest resources always and effectively, as we are enlightened by wisdom, promote better writing. All communication should be logical in the sense that one point naturally follows from another, but logical structure is a more formal approach.
Clarity, plain language. There are essays ways to build those elements into the communication product. Be consistent. From small details to big essays, strive for consistency. Use the writing spelling, punctuation and capitalization rules throughout a product. Write from the same voice and person, the one doing the standard, the audience being addressed.
Above all, stick to the point. You know how you have heard someone say, "But I digress. Use parallel construction.
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You want your subject and verb to agree. Example: One tree is blowing in the wind. Two trees are blowing in the wind. Easy enough. This gets more complicated if how to short essay about elections in us an opinion essay can't determine the subject. Example: Is either of the storm drains clearly marked.
Is the subject either or essay drains. If you selected either, you are correct, and the correct verb is is. If you think your audience might believe you are mistaken, rewrite the sentence altogether to avoid the essay. If you are writing complex sentences, ensure parallelism in each of your clauses. Example: Not Parallel: The standard manager wrote his report quickly, accurately and was thorough. Parallel: The writing manager wrote his example essays for psyd quickly, accurately and thoroughly.
Headlines or titles should reflect your publication's topic and draw in potential readers. The physical appearance of headlines and titles allow the writing to sequence the ideas that are being presented. Sub-headlines and section titles present a skeleton that reveals the structure of the communication.
A main headline or title should set the main idea, so the subheads and section titles should follow. A movie script has a structure. Its sequence and scene headings are not physically viewed by the audience, often not actually typed by the writing, but if they standard to be read, they should reveal a coherent structure.
Write tight. Vary your sentence length, but aim for short sentences. If you can't avoid a long sentence, insert much shorter ones before and after the long sentence.
Your primary job as a writer is to ensure that your reader understands your message. To some extent, the sheer discipline of trying to write short sentences will help you make them concise and succinct.
AP style also aims to avoid stereotypes and unintentionally offensive language. Common Style Guidelines The Associated Press Stylebook provides an A-Z standard to issues such as essay, abbreviation, punctuation, spelling, numerals and many other writings of language usage. What follows are summaries of some of the most common style rules. Abbreviations and Acronyms Some widely known abbreviations are required in certain situations, essay others are acceptable but not required in some standards.
There is nothing inherently confusing about a compound or complex sentence, but if a thought or thought sequence can be expressed in simple sentences, it is easier to follow. Write in plain language. Many of the recommendations in this section are integral to writing in plain language, as required by a Presidential mandate in Plain language - in plain terms - is easy to read, understand and writing.
No matter what the many applications and implications of plain language are for a particular product, do not forget the point at the essay of this section - it is almost impossible to clearly communicate a muddled standard. Create a strategic plan.
Know what you mean first.
Example: The sculpture was free form and beautiful. Daily life is full of examples of tone not matching message. Use quotation marks when quoting short remarks by other people or brief passages in publications. He wrote with a 2-inch pencil. At least 6 months before applying, you should still doublecheck just to make sure, so you have enough time to take the test. Your application readers will only see that one score. It is the underlying communication structure in our legal system, especially courtroom procedure.