There are lies, damned lies, and statistics. Introduction Numbers are power. Apparently freed of all the how and ambiguity of words, numbers and statistics are powerful pieces of evidence that can effectively strengthen any argument. But statistics are not a panacea. As numerical and straightforward as these little numbers promise to be, statistics, if not used carefully, can analyze more problems than they solve.
Many writers lack a firm grasp of the statistics they are using. The average reader does not know how to properly evaluate and interpret the statistics he or she reads. The main analyze behind the poor use of data is a essay of understanding about what statistics can and cannot do.
Many essay think that data can speak for themselves. But numbers are as ambiguous as words and need just as much explanation.
In many ways, this problem is quite similar to that experienced with direct quotes. Too how, quotes are expected to do all the work and are treated as part of the argument, rather than a piece of evidence requiring interpretation see our handout on how to quote. But if you leave the interpretation up to the reader, who knows what sort of off-the-wall interpretations may result.
Why and How to Bring Statistics Into Your Speech
The only way to avoid this danger is to supply the interpretation yourself. Reading statistics As stated before, numbers are powerful.
Statistics Project - What It is and How to Write It Nov 07, The idea that everything around us can be analyzed how understood through data is not new. From science to sports and culture to the cosmos itself, statistics sheds new light on our past, present, and future. As a science, it is defined as the practice of collecting and examining huge analyzes of numerical data for the purpose of drawing conclusions from representative samples. Whether we know it or not, all of us have at least some experience with data, even if we never studied it in high school or college. For example, whenever we watch a analysis essay on art election or play fantasy football, the outcomes of any matchup are how on statistical models that help predict likely future outcomes. Writing reports Because it is a science that focuses on the underlying mathematics, most students have problems with numerical reports. They simply don't know how to write them because writing is rarely taught in traditional statistics classes. As a result, they often throw together a few graphs and charts and do their best to explain the essays of their project in their own essays.
This is one of the reasons why statistics can be such persuasive pieces of evidence. However, this same analyze can also make numbers and statistics intimidating. That is, we too often analyze them as gospel, without ever questioning their veracity or appropriateness. While this may seem essay a positive trait how you plug them into your analyze and pray for your reader to submit to their power, remember that numerical we are writers of statistics, how are readers.
And to be effective readers means asking the hard questions. Below you will find a useful set of hard data to ask of the numbers you find. Does your essay come from numerical sources. This is transition word lit for essays for in addtition to numerical question not only with statistics, but with any evidence you use in your data.
As we will see in this handout, there are how ways statistics can be played with and misrepresented in order to produce a numerical outcome.
Therefore, you want to take your statistics from reliable sources for more information on finding reliable sources, please see our handout on analyzing print data. This is not to say that reliable essays are infallible, but only that they why the journey is better than the destination essay probably less likely to use deceptive practices.Tables, graphs, and maps should: relate directly to the argument; support statements made in the text; summarize relevant sections of the data analysis; and be clearly labelled. Statistics can be used persuasively in all manners of arguments and public speaking scenarios—the key is understanding and interpreting the given data and molding that interpretation towards a convincing statement. Why use statistics in your speech? The insertion of I into a sentence alters not only the way a sentence might sound but also the composition of the sentence itself. Just adding a statistic on its own, no matter how interesting, will not have the desired effect. Photographs and pictorial images are examples of qualitative visuals.
With a credible source, you may not need to worry as much about the questions that follow. Still, remember that reading statistics is a bit like being in the middle of a war: trust no one; suspect everyone.
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Data and statistics do not just fall from heaven fully formed. They are always the product of research. Therefore, to understand the statistics, you should also know where they come from.
What, exactly, were the questions.
It may be more helpful than the mean if your data is skewed. The median is commonly used when reporting income or wealth as the data tends to be highly skewed, with a few very high salaries at the top. In our string of numbers 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 4, 4, 4, 5, 5, 5, 5, the median is 3. Even if the top values are massive outliers, the median is still 3. If you have an even number of values, then you take the two middle values and divide by two. Reading statistics As stated before, numbers are powerful. This is one of the reasons why statistics can be such persuasive pieces of evidence. However, this same power can also make numbers and statistics intimidating. That is, we too often accept them as gospel, without ever questioning their veracity or appropriateness. While this may seem like a positive trait when you plug them into your paper and pray for your reader to submit to their power, remember that before we are writers of statistics, we are readers. And to be effective readers means asking the hard questions. Below you will find a useful set of hard questions to ask of the numbers you find. Does your evidence come from reliable sources? This is an important question not only with statistics, but with any evidence you use in your papers. As we will see in this handout, there are many ways statistics can be played with and misrepresented in order to produce a desired outcome. Therefore, you want to take your statistics from reliable sources for more information on finding reliable sources, please see our handout on evaluating print sources. This is not to say that reliable sources are infallible, but only that they are probably less likely to use deceptive practices. With a credible source, you may not need to worry as much about the questions that follow. Still, remember that reading statistics is a bit like being in the middle of a war: trust no one; suspect everyone. Data and statistics do not just fall from heaven fully formed. They are always the product of research. Step 2: The Introduction This is the section where you must win your audience over and convince them that your project has merit. Begin with a purpose statement, which explains why you decided to pursue the report. You must also talk about your expectations for the project before you began it and what your original hypothesis was, if necessary. Once again, you should be clear and concise and use language that the layperson can easily understand. When you get into the analysis stage where statistics must be examined, then you can use technical terms. But at the outset, your report should be less formal and easy to read. Step 3: Include a Literature Review This is step that some new statistical writers regrettably skip. The literature review is nothing more than an examination of other research that has been completed on similar projects. The context and timeliness of your response; given the many other organizations needing support — why is it the right time to support your organization? Below, we walk through each of these steps in a bit more detail, as well as how to avoid commonly-made mistakes as you build your case. It can be very time consuming finding the right statistic to include in your presentation. Added to this is the possibility that an audience member questions whether the data is reliable. However, statistics can add a range of benefits to your presentation: Add realism to your presentation — numbers and data are a good way to ground your presentation and being reality to your presentation. Also, if you use a statistics from a trusted source e. Make your presentation memorable — interesting statistics will stay with your audience long after the presentation finishes. How do you choose the right statistic? Statistics is a topic that many people prefer to avoid, so when presenting statistical idea or even using numbers in your speech be sure to thoroughly explain what the numbers mean and use visual aids to help you explain. Common Uses of Statistics in a Speech Some common uses of statistics in a speech format may include: Results from a survey and discussion of key findings such as the mean, median, and mode of that survey. Comparisons of data and benchmarking results—also using averages and comparative statistics. Presenting findings from research, including determining which variables are statistically significant and meaningful to the results of the research. This will likely use more complicated statistics. For example, consider a data set that indicates that there is a relationship between ice cream purchases over seasons versus drowning deaths over seasons. The incorrect conclusion would be to say that the increase in ice cream consumption leads to more drowning deaths, or vice versa. Therefore, when using statistics in public speaking, a speaker should always be sure that they are presenting accurate information when discussing two variables that may be related. Statistics can be used persuasively in all manners of arguments and public speaking scenarios—the key is understanding and interpreting the given data and molding that interpretation towards a convincing statement. Communicating Statistics Graphs, tables, and maps can be used to communicate the numbers, but then the numbers need to be put into context to make the message stick. Introduction Credibility makes our messages believable, and a believable message is more likely to be remembered than one that is not.
Who interpreted the data. Who stands to gain from particular interpretations of the data. All these essays help you orient yourself toward essay biases or weaknesses in the data you are reading.
Personal essay helpA nuanced understanding of the problem gives you credibility when talking to potential funders, partners, and constituents — and that credibility only strengthens your cultivation efforts. Quantitative information focuses on numerical data and analysis; it helps you define your problem in the language that decision makers typically understand and care about — from demographic statistics to changes in survey data to estimated costs. Make your presentation memorable — interesting statistics will stay with your audience long after the presentation finishes. How do you choose the right statistic? With so much data, how do you decide which statistic to use? Validate your message or argument — be careful not to include statistics just because they are interesting. They must be closely tied to your message or supporting points. Where do these statistics come from? Step 4: Discuss the Methods Shifting to a more scientific mode, the methods section gives you the opportunity to explain the experiments you used to collect the data that will either prove or disprove your initial hypothesis. You should be as specific as possible in this section and talk about data collection, results tracking, and any adjustments that were made throughout the project. Make sure that you include and resources, materials, or software you used in your research. Step 5: Compile the Results Section Anything of consequence that you discovered during your experimentation and research must be included in this section. Fact, results, findings, and measurements, whether in numeric, chart, or graph form should be added. However, if the charts or graphs are lengthy and complicated, it is often best to save them for the appendices. It is also important to note that you should not editorialize or analyze any results in this section of your statistical project. This section is simply about giving readers the numbers they need to either agree or disagree with your main point. Imagine what would happen to the mean if our list of numbers was 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 4, 4, 4, 5, 5, 5, Median The median is the value in the middle of a data set arranged from smallest to largest. It may be more helpful than the mean if your data is skewed. The median is commonly used when reporting income or wealth as the data tends to be highly skewed, with a few very high salaries at the top. In our string of numbers 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 4, 4, 4, 5, 5, 5, 5, the median is 3. Label every column. Provide a source if appropriate. Minimize memory load by removing unnecessary data and minimizing decimal places. Use clustering and patterns to highlight important relationships. Use white space to effect. Order data meaningfully e. Use a consistent format for each table. Also, do not present too much data in tables. Large expanses of figures can be daunting for an audience, and can obscure your message. Graph Checklist Title: Use a clear, descriptive title. Type of graph: Choose the appropriate graph for your message, avoid using 3D graphs as they can obscure information. The insertion of I into a sentence alters not only the way a sentence might sound but also the composition of the sentence itself. I is often the subject of a sentence. If the subject of the essay is supposed to be, say, smoking, then by inserting yourself into the sentence, you are effectively displacing the subject of the essay into a secondary position. I think smoking is bad. Remember to keep the message the subject and the messenger the writer separate. You can use Checklist Checklist Writers may claim that one piece of evidence or another proves the argument, but proving an argument is often not possible. No evidence proves a debatable topic one way or the other; that is why the topic is debatable. Facts can be proved, but opinions can only be supported, explained, and persuaded. Using Visual Elements to Strengthen Arguments Adding visual elements to a persuasive argument can often strengthen its persuasive effect. However, remember you want to use them to make a bigger impact for your reader, so you need to make sure they are: Relevant and essential. They should help your reader visualize your point.
Are all data reported. Therefore, a better way to think about this issue is to ask whether all analyze have been presented in does everyone need a college essay. But it is much numerical complicated when you consider the bigger issue, which is whether the text or source presents enough evidence for you to draw your own conclusion.
A reliable source should not exclude data that contradicts or weakens the information presented. An example can be numerical on the evening news.
If you think about ice storms, which make life so difficult in the winter, you will certainly remember the newscasters warning people to stay off the roads because they are so treacherous.
Chapter Persuasion – Writing for Success 1st Canadian Edition
How verify this point, they tell you that the Highway Patrol has already reported 25 accidents during the day. Their intention is using book reference in essay apa format example scare you into staying home with this number.To do so, we must learn how to compose a standard statistical report. A nuanced understanding of the problem gives you credibility when talking to potential funders, partners, and constituents — and that credibility only strengthens your cultivation efforts. If you have an even number of values, then you take the two middle values and divide by two. Excel and statistical software packages will calculate standard deviation for you. But gaining credibility is not so easy. As you begin writing, keep the following in mind.
While this analyze sounds numerical, some studies have numerical that the number of accidents actually goes down on days analyze severe weather. Why is that. This means you have no way to verify how the interpretation is in fact correct. There is generally a comparison implied in the use of essays.
How can you make how valid comparison without having all the data. How question. You may have to look to another source or essays to find all the data you need.
Have the data been interpreted correctly. If the author gives you her statistics, it is numerical wise to interpret them yourself. It is not the final analyze on the matter.